All Veins, Lodes, and Ledges Throughout Their Entire Depth

Geology and the Apex Law in Utah Mines

The history of Utah mining weaves fantastic tales of bonanza discoveries, mining booms and busts, swindles, and scandals. In All Veins, Lodes, and Ledges Throughout Their Entire Depth William Parry traces the colorful histories of these miners, prospectors, and land owners as they fight for claim locations and the mining rights to the best ore.

The apex law of 1866 and 1872 granted to the claim owner the right to pursue "all veins . . . throughout their entire depth" even though these veins or lodes might pass under the claim of another. Discovery of the ore was not enough. The discoverer had to defend in the courts his right to pursue his claim. These cases were fundamental test cases in mining law in the U.S. and served as case law for other litigation. William Parry reviews the historical development of mining law, as well as cases from the Little Cottonwood, Park City, Ophir, Bingham, and Tintic mining districts and summarizes the nature of the disputes, the litigants, the winners, the losers, and the logic of the judges in deciding the cases. Parry also includes the geological concepts related to mining claims. Woven throughout all this history is a fascinating portrait of early Utah.


William T. Parry is professor emeritus of geology and geophysics at the University of Utah, and author of Geology of Utah's Rivers (University of Utah Press, 2008) and A Hiking Guide to the Geology of the Wasatch Mountains (University of Utah Press, 2005).

Table of Contents:
List of Illustrations

1. Discovery Is Not Enough
2. Acquisition and Disposal of Federal Mining Lands
3. Legalizing Mining Claims
4. Mining Rights beyond Surface Rights
5. The Making of Ore Deposits
6. Mining Beneath A Claim
7. Little Cottonwood Mining District: The Claim Must Match the Vein
8. Tintic Mining District: The Vein Must Have Recognizable Boundaries
9. Bingham Mining District: Mineralization Lodes Must Be Continuous
10. Ophir Mining District: Extralateral Rights Need Not Be Advertised
11. Park City Mining District: Monuments Take Precedence over Descriptions
12. The Apex Law Today


Praise and Reviews:

"Provides a fresh look at a largely bygone era from the perspective gained from almost a century of scientific advances in the study of mineral deposits."—Erich U. Petersen, University of Utah

"From bullets to barristers, this book is a fascinating account of apex rights and U.S. mining laws. It is a technically sound summary of mining law, history, and ore-forming processes. This book is a must read for anyone who has explored the mining districts in northern Utah and wondered what tales the old mines could tell."—M.K. McCarter, University of Utah

"An extremely interesting study."—Utah Historical Quarterly